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    As of now, which materials are used to manufacture disposable Communion cups?
    Are such materials hazardous?

    On a global scale, the majority of disposable Communion cups are made of polystyrene (PS), a common plastic polymer. Compared to analogous materials like polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), polystyrene(PS) is cheap and has a high transparency. However, PS is harder to recycle and, upon incineration, releases several toxic chemicals, including styrene, benzene, and carbon monoxide, as well as traces of toluene, methane, and ethylene. Styrene, the precursor monomer of polystyrene, is known to increase the risk of cancer, cause damage to the nervous system, and engender birth defects. Field experts have identified styrene as a highly hazardous chemical that, through inhibiting the central nervous system, may potentially cause liver and kidney damage. Generally, unless the polymerization of PS reaches 100% efficiency, traces of styrene residue will be present in any PS product, which may be released in its toxic gaseous form at the increase in temperature. PS may also release toxins when immersed in liquids. As of now, WHO has confirmed PS to be a carcinogen; the European Union has likewise confirmed this and is considering banning PS receptacles entirely.

    As of 2012:
    EU members Sweden and Denmark have urged the recognition of styrene as a critical raw material (CRM).
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized styrene as a “potential carcinogen”.
    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized styrene as a hazardous air pollutant.
    The American Society of Toxicology, in their 12th revision of their Report on Carcinogens (ROC), stated that “styrene may potentially cause cancer in humans”
    ICIS Chemical Business. Styrene outlook positive BUT BEWARE, 2011.
    ECHA. European Chemical Agency News Alcert: By Committee for risk assessment(RAC) Helsinki,” Concerns around Styrene-Damaging the Unborn Child”, 2012. (3). Nicholas D. Kristof, The Cancer Lobby(Concerns on Styrene & Formal dehyde). The New York Times, 21st Oct. 2012

    全球的可拋棄式聖餐杯大部分是PS(聚苯乙烯Polystyrene: 台灣俗稱保麗龍)的化工原料所製成,台灣也不例外。 PS在自然環境下,較PE或PP難分解,但原料便宜而且可以做得很透明。PS燃燒後之毒性產物,主要為苯乙烯Styrene、苯、及一氧化碳,另外尚可能產生甲苯、甲烷、乙烯等。聚苯乙烯的殘留單體 - 苯乙烯Styrene是具有毒性的,長期攝入將提高致癌率,損傷人體神經系統,對胎兒造成損害。它會抑制神經系統,損害肝臟與腎臟,已被毒物專家認定是高危險毒物,一般而言,在製造過程中,若聚合反應未達100%,都會殘留苯乙烯單體於產品中,在使用時都可能會釋出造成毒害。只要稍微遇熱就會加速釋放出苯乙烯;苯乙烯Styrene是世界衛生組織(WHO)認定的致癌物,若人體長期接觸,恐有腸胃道方面的癌症。 PS在放入液體中也可能會釋放出對胎兒孕婦等會致癌的有毒物質。這PS的問題都已經在歐盟已經是認定的事實,而且歐盟正準備禁止當容器使用。早期台灣的可拋式咖啡杯之杯蓋還用PS當材料,因為有毒物釋出的問題,最近幾年也逐漸不採用PS當咖啡杯蓋的材料。 2012年美國提出將聚苯乙烯的殘存單體列為可能致癌的物質,歐洲也對聚苯乙烯的安全問題提出設限或禁絕進口的考慮

    •ICIS Chemical Business. Styrene outlook positive BUT BEWARE, 2011.
    •ECHA. European Chemical Agency News Alcert: By Committee for risk assessment(RAC) Helsinki,” Concerns around Styrene-Damaging the Unborn Child”, 2012.
    •Nicholas D. Kristof, The Cancer Lobby(Concerns on Styrene & Formal dehyde). The New York Times, 21st Oct. 2012

    我們不採用PLA當材料有三個主觀的原因,一個是源頭,”根”本身就存在爭議問題。第二個原因是PLA材料無法被回收再次使用,第三是與窮人爭糧的疑慮。 先解釋第一個原因: PLA (Polylactide)主要來源分兩類,一類是玉米,另一類是木薯或甘蔗的(這種是天然的,不是用基改的植物)。因為成本因素,目前玉米的PLA原料主流來源是美國的基改公司,而這號稱玉米提煉的PLA材料是基改的玉米製造的,雖然經過聚乳酸的抽取製造過程,採用這種玉米PLA所製成的成品本身已經不含基改的基因,即便將成品丟棄也不會汙染大地。但是我們認為這個原料的源頭是基改的玉米,我們不想透過使用這種玉米製成的PLA,間接支持這樣的基改玉米產業,因為它污染了神所創造的大自然與土地。 而提到第二個不使用PLA的原因: 雖然表面上看起來PLA產品在適當的溫濕度下,會自然降解,感覺最環保。但也因為PLA的材料是聚乳酸,是會自然分解的,想像一下這種材料若是和一般的塑膠混和在一起回收再使用,會使得那個回收再製造出來的二次加工塑膠件很容易脆解,分裂。所以一般塑膠回收廠是很怕收到PLA的回收料。若是混到PLA料,整批塑膠料件之再次利用性就會降低,甚至無法再生使用,迫使整批再生品被丟棄。 理論上在台灣的塑膠料回收廠基本上只要投資更大的資金,是有非常專業的光電分選系統可以挑出PLA料不與一般塑膠料混合。 但那個分選系統設備十分昂貴,如果沒有政府政策協助下,塑膠回收廠是不會投資那樣高昂設備的。所以,在台灣,被確定出來的PLA廢棄料的處理都是直接送進焚化爐燒掉。基於以上原因,我們認為一個廢棄物無法再生被利用甚至影響其他正常的塑膠品被回收利用,整體來看,這樣子反而很浪費,不是適當的產品原料選擇。第三是與窮人爭地、爭糧的疑慮。某些歐洲重視基改問題的PLA供應商,號稱使用有機的田地透過非基改樹薯與甘蔗所提煉的PLA原料,雖沒有基改的問題,但是種植在那些可生產食物的土地上,卻有和窮人競爭有限食物的疑慮。將來隨著在末後世代全球暖化引起的極端與異常氣候只會加劇,所造成的糧食危機對貧窮人家的衝擊只會更大。當然,PLA在其他產品的應用上是有肯定之處,但我們只是主觀認為不適合用在聖餐杯上,因為問的人多,所以一次說明我們不採用的主觀原因。
    Many corporations use polyactide (PLA) as their main ingredient in manufacturing biodegradable plastic products. Why is it that habrit does not employ such a material for its products?
    We do not use polyactide (PLA) for manufacturing our products due to three distinct reasons with our subjective opinions. The first reason relates to its erroneous origin, while the second relates to PLA’s actual recyclability as a biodegradable material. For our first argument, PLA is generally derived from two renewable resources, the first being genetically-modified corn and the latter being organic tapioca roots or sugarcane. Due to material costs, most of the processed corn used to manufacture PLA products in Taiwan is currently sourced from American GM company. Although the polycondensation process during PLA production eliminates all traces of genetic modification of the corn crops, we do not wish to indirectly support GM companies by sourcing our raw materials from them. We believe that such a decision would contradict God’s Creation and natural order. For our second argument, even though PLA products will naturally degrade under normal conditions, its main ingredient (polyactide) will likewise cause regular plastic to undergo biodegradation when mixed with PLA. Should such mixing occur in plastic recycling plants, it will severely decrease the overall recyclability of normal plastic. Although it is possible for the recycling plants in Taiwan to install high-level optic processers that can identify and separate PLA from regular plastic, none will be willing to make such a costly investment without government support funds. So to, in Taiwanese recycling plants, close to all PLA waste products are simply incinerated: a forced solution that is both wasteful and non-environmental. Thirdly, there is the concern of contending with the impoverished for cultivable land and food supply. Though some European PLA suppliers produce products that do not contain GMO, but to contend with the poor for the use of limited cultivable land and food resources still raise serious concerns. As the conditions of global warming and climate change worsen, the impact on food shortages for the poor population will only increase. Of course, PLA might be very good in other products application. Here we just explain why we don't use it with subjective opinions since many clients asked for this issue.
    We ever made PLA communion cups but later we let go it based on the arguments above

    我們杯子材料是目前在食品容器應用上,安全最無慮的PP聚丙烯(Polypropylene),聚丙烯的重複單元由3個碳原子組成,”3”是最穩定的化學結構,不容易與其他原子再做結合,產生塑化劑等化學反應。PP材質也耐酸,不怕裝上葡萄汁或是酒。 因此市場上絕大多數微波爐專用塑膠容器等強調安全的塑膠材質都是PP塑膠,這是因為它的化學穩定性相對最高,在食品方面的應用超過其他任何塑膠製品。聚丙烯PP更易在紫外光和熱能作用下氧化降解,而且回收再利用性更高。 加上約記的杯子精選高級的透明PP原材於台灣的無塵室等級的工廠內製造,更通過SGS認證確定無塑化劑殘留,所以我們認為用PP當聖餐杯紀念與耶穌的約,應該是目前對身體健康最無慮又兼顧環保的可拋棄式杯子材料。

    What material does habrit use to manufacture its Communion cups?
    habrit Communion cups are made of polypropylene (PP), one of the safest plastic polymers so far in the chemical industry. The repeating unit of polypropylene is composed of 3 consecutive carbon atoms; as 3 is the most stable number for chemical compounds, PP scarcely reacts with any other chemicals. PP is also acid-resistant, so our Communion cups will have no problem holding grape juice or wine. For the exact same reasons, the vast majority of microwavable plastic receptacles are composed of PP plastic. PP is also liable to chain degradation from exposure to heat or UV radiation, and has a high recyclability. Moreover, habrit sources the highest grade of PP and manufactures its Communion cups in cleanrooms in Taiwan, exceeding SGS regulations by having no plasticizer residue in its products. Thus, we believe that by sourcing PP as the material for our Communion cups, we are providing the safe, healthy and environmentally friendly vessels for those who seek to honor the Communion of Christ.

    約記的聖餐杯最高耐熱溫度是幾度? 可以用洗碗機嗎?
    本杯耐熱溫度120度。前一人使用過的杯子如果有感冒病毒等殘留,又若無法透過專業的高溫壓殺菌,可能會傳染給下一位。 因此綜合以上兩點,不建議使用洗碗機或烘碗機進行清洗烘乾,二次使用。

    What is the maximum heat of habrit communion cups? Can it washed by dishwasher?
    Maximum heat of our cup tolerance is 80 Celsius degree. If previous user had flu. and without professional high temperture sterilization, next user might infected. therefore, we strongly do not recommend the cups washed in dishwasher or dish dryer and use again.

    A7:本品最高耐熱溫度是90度,但為了避免洗碗機的高溫,造成外型或是內部矽膠零件變形,請勿使用洗碗機或烘碗機清洗烘乾。 本注汁器塑膠體全是Tritan高級材料,不含環境賀爾蒙-雙酚A(BPA)。甚至連注汁口的矽膠也是精選食品級矽膠,非市面上的黑色工業用橡膠。並取得SGS認證不含塑化劑與環境賀爾蒙-雙酚A(BPA),檢驗號碼: CT2015B0528。 我們用一種做出要在聖殿內使用的器皿之恭敬心情,來製造此產品,請安心使用。

    Can habrit communion cups filler washed by dishwasher or dish dyer?
    This product’s maximum heat tolerance is 90 degrees Celsius . To avoid any deformation to this product, dishwasher and dish dyer are not allowed to used. The whole body of this filler is made of Tritan plastics, No BPA (Bisphenol A) dissolution and plasticizers remained. Also in compliance with SGS regulations in Taiwan, SGS certificates Policy no: CT2015B0528 Even the small detail, the nozzle part, we use food level silicon instead of industrial black rubber.

    What does that mean in Hebrew on habrit box?


    單單獻上最好的 民數記 18:29
    Simply offer the best 民數記18:29


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